During the early 19th century, similar horns to the trumpet such as the cornet and the flugelhorn were invented.
The main difference is that the cylindrical bore of the trumpet stays the same diameter until the bell, whereas the diameter of a cornet’s or the larger flugelhorn’s conical bore increases slightly through the length of the tubing, from the mouthpiece to the bell.
Other ancient trumpets have been excavated in Asia, South America, and Scandinavia.
Charles Gerard Conn played cornet for the Union Army band when he served during the Civil War.
After the war, he returned to his home in Elkhart, Indiana, and opened a grocery and bakery.
Joseph Haydn, however, wrote a concerto for the keyed trumpet in 1796, because the natural trumpet was too limited for a full piece.
In the early 1800s, the trumpet was adapted with valves and shortened by 4 1/2 feet (making the horn about 14 inches long when folded), which allowed it to play the chromatic scale more readily and made the horn louder.
In classical music, Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, as well as Leopold Mozart (father of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart) and Johann Michael Haydn (brother of Franz Joseph Haydn), were among the first prominent composers to put the trumpet, pitched to the key of F, to good use.
In Bach’s time, the Baroque era, natural trumpets were 7 or 8 feet of tubing with a shallow mouthpiece, which was then folded twice before the bell at the end.
Some manufacturers make bells out of sterling silver, and top-of-the-line trumpets often come with removable tuning bells, as the size of the bell affects the sound.
To play a trumpet, the musician buzzes his or her lips over the mouthpiece while manipulating the valves and slide.
Most trumpets are made of brass, plated or lacquered in another metal like nickel; if the horn is lacquered in gold, the sound from the bell will be smoother, but if it is silver plated, the sound will be more brilliant.
Rarer trumpets have been made of German silver, copper, and gold.
The mouthpieces are interchangeable, and the size used depends on the kind of music one plays. In North America, the warmer B-flat trumpets tend to be used for jazz and band music, whereas the brighter C trumpet is favored by orchestras.