[EW:1O8] indicates that the Essenes kept track of the luni-solar only to point out errors in case they would eventually be in charge in Jerusalem.4QMMT [QSl, QS2, QS3, SH3-174] also points to a 364-day calendar.In support of this, we know that there were Essenes active in Judea at large.
When the sun rises in the heaven, he comes forth through that fourth portal thirty, 9 mornings in succession, and sets accurately in the fourth portal in the west of the heaven.And during this period the day becomes daily longer and the night nightly shorter to the thirtieth 10 morning.The point of the analysis below is to illustrate that only in A. 30 did the Essene Passover Eve fall 1 day before the Jewish Passover Eve. 30 is the only year in which Jesus and His disciples could observe the Essene Passover exactly one day before the Jews and Pharisees etc. No other year satisfies all the criteria to harmonize the gospel Passion Week accounts, and hence A. 30 stands alone as the only "fit" for the year of crucifixion.In all other years the Essene Passover Eve fell in a different week or fell after (not before) the Jewish Passover. * add 2 hours to convert UTC/GMT to Jerusalem timezone using US Naval Observatory data ** Assume Essenes "set" their calendar to 1 Nisan Wednesday on the Vernal Equinox: The differences in which day of the week Passover was observed between the Essenes and the Jews (Pharisees, Sadducees, etc.) is due to their different practices in starting their respective annual calendars.(fn p117) Today it is becoming increasingly evident that the calendar was actually one of the main areas of disagreement between the sect and its opponents.
This is evident from the constant emphasis in our texts on the proper times and seasons and the dramatic interference of the wicked priest with the sect's observance of the Day of Atonement (1Qp H 11.4-8). The point of the foregoing is not to argue that Jesus was an Essene in some fashion.
25-33 As far the calendar, the Essenes actually had two of them. Since the holidays came from the second one, not much else is gleaned from the 354-day calendar. See [EW:§§22-23] for translations of plates 4Q321, 4Q320 from the Hebrew, which delineate the equivalences.
We now know that the solar (364) calendar was the mainstay with the luni-solar (354) calendar playing a much lesser role.
There is absolutely no need to change the reigning theory—Qumran must have been an Essene community. Hardly any of them expressed doubts about the Essene identification. 32-33] Magen Broshi (of the Israel Museum), "Essenes at Qumran?
A Rejoinder to Albert Baumgarten", Dead Sea Discoveries, Volume 14, Number 1, 2007 , pp. As we indicated, the moon goes around the earth in approximately 29 1/2 days; that is why we get this peculiar number of days. Since 3x354 30 = 3x364, it is thought that an extra month of 30 days was added to the lunar one every three years (at the end of the three years) to make up for the difference to keep everything normal.
Book of Enoch 72:6-10 The proper method of marking the passage of time is the movements of the sun (solar calendar) (-31); in fact this was one the purposes for which the sun was created (2:9).