Understand how decay and half life work to enable radiometric dating.
Thorium metal is silvery and tarnishes black when exposed to air, forming the dioxide.Thorium is weakly radioactive: all of its known isotopes are unstable.Thorium is estimated to be about three to four times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust, and is chiefly refined from monazite sands as a by-product of extracting rare earth metals.Thorium was once commonly used as the light source in gas mantles and as an alloying material, but these applications have declined due to concerns about its radioactivity.Thorium is still widely used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes (at a rate of 1–2% mix with tungsten).
It remains popular as a material in high-end optics and scientific instrumentation; thorium and uranium are the only significantly radioactive elements with major commercial applications that do not rely on their radioactivity.
Thorium is predicted to be able to replace uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, but only a few thorium reactors have yet been completed.
Thorium is a soft, paramagnetic, bright silvery radioactive actinide metal.
Students measure the fluid depth with time for several "runs" with varied conditions, then graph their results, create decay equations, manipulate these equations and use them to "date" another experiment.
They then apply their new understanding to make predictions regarding complications involved in the decay process and its use in dating (such as daughter loss).
and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder.