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Much of the Sanskrit corpus was suppressed under the British East India Company followed by the British Raj in the 1800s.

Christian Wolff identified psychology as its own science, writing Psychologia empirica in 1732 and Psychologia rationalis in 1734.

This notion advanced further under Immanuel Kant, who established the idea of anthropology, with psychology as an important subdivision.

Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi (1611–1671), Liu Zhi (1660–1730), and Wang Qingren (1768–1831).

Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, and advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function.

Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism.

A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul.This extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, and other areas.Psychologists of diverse orientations also consider the unconscious mind.It is an academic discipline and a social science which seeks to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist.Psychology has been described as a "hub science", with psychological findings linking to research and perspectives from the social sciences, natural sciences, medicine, humanities, and philosophy.